Dental Care and Special Supplements Benefit the Aged Horse
by Dr. Eleanor Kellon
Winter weather and loss of pasture access make owners of thin senior horses anxious. There are things to consider when a horse is underweight that span all age groups, but seniors have additional considerations.
Older horses need frequent, but not necessarily aggressive, dental care. Problems such as worn teeth, loose or missing teeth, abscesses and gum irritation from food packing into diastemas (gaps at the gum level) are common older horse issues. These problems can interfere with effective chewing and possibly cause pain. Wear also changes the angle of the chewing surface, which reduces the effectiveness of chewing.
The goal of dentistry should be to remove pain, not necessarily “fix” things. Horses with significant dental issues reap the most benefit from a wet, if not soupy, diet. Hay cubes or pellets can be thoroughly soaked, as can complete feeds, beet pulp and bran. Get professional advice in formulating the diet.
I commonly recommend incorporating psyllium into these wet senior diets. It further increases how easily they swallow, as choking is a concern with seniors. Psyllium is also an excellent prebiotic. Use 1 to 2 ounces of psyllium husk fiber per meal.
Older horses often have reduced natural immunity to parasite infections and may even become positive for parasites normally only seen in foals, like roundworms. This is one cause of weight loss you can control. Keep an eye on fecal egg counts and work with your vet on developing an individual deworming program for your senior.
Supplementing fat, up to 0.5 kg (slightly more than 1 pound) per day, considerably increases the caloric density of the diet. Begin with a flax based supplement to replace omega-3 fatty acids if the horse is not on fresh grass. Use at least 0.12 kg per day of this or even up to the full 0.5 kg per day. If feeding less than the full 0.5 kg per day of flax based supplement, I recommend making up the difference with something that will not upset the omega-3 to omega-6 ratio, like Uckele’s CocoSun.
Senior citizens of all species may suffer from reduced digestive efficiency. The diversity and amount of microflora in the large intestine of the horse decreases with age. A supplement with both high digestive enzyme activity and good numbers of live probiotic organisms can be very helpful for seniors.
Vanishing toplines is a common complaint with older horses. When this is seen the horse should always be checked for PPID – pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, or Cushing’s Disease, because high cortisol activity in these horses causes muscle loss. There may also be a factor of poor protein digestibility as well as inadequate key amino acid intake. Supplementation with the triple combination of L-lysine, DL-methionine and L-threonine is an inexpensive safeguard on the nutritional end.
Problems such as heart failure, kidney failure, liver disease or malignancies are rare in younger horses but anything goes with a senior. All of these may have weight loss as a component. It’s always wise to involve your veterinarian when having weight issues with a senior. Odds are one or more of the factors mentioned earlier will be the explanation, but keeping your vet informed of the issue and what was tried will save precious time in deciding on diagnostics and treatment down the road.
Uckele Health & Nutrition offers formulas to support the thin senior horse. Especially useful are Tri-Amino, CocoSun Oil, CocoSun Granular, Absorb All, and Psyllium husk fiber are available through their website uckele.com
About Dr. Kellon
Dr. Eleanor Kellon, staff veterinary specialist for Uckele Health & Nutrition, is an established authority in the field of equine nutrition for over 30 years, and a founding member and leader of the Equine Cushings and Insulin Resistance (ECIR) group, whose mission is to improve the welfare of horses with metabolic disorders via integration of research and real-life clinical experience. Prevention of laminitis is the ultimate goal. www.ecirhorse.org
Uckele Health & Nutrition is an innovation-driven health company committed to making people and their animals healthier. On the leading edge of nutritional science and technology for over 50 years, Uckele formulates and manufactures a full spectrum of quality nutritional supplements incorporating the latest nutritional advances. uckele.com